Sunday, 1 November 2020

Could you send a thank you letter?

A double vertical graph to represent that Knowledge is power, with vertical axis labeled as Ad persuasiveness ranging from1 to 5 in increment of 1 while the horizontal axis shows two divisions- Legitimate authority (left) and Illegitimate authority (right); The results are as follows: For legitimate authority, magnitude of red bar is slightly above 3 while for blue bar, it is in between 3 and 4; This research makes two critical points. First, people are most likely to resist persuasion when (a) their motivation to resist is increased (ie, by being told that advertisers will try to deceive them) and (b) when given the means to do so (ie, strategies for recognizing illegitimate authorities). Second, when people are armed with the means to resist persuasion, they are also more open to appeals by legitimate authorities. Making the Effort to Resist Finally, as much as we might want to resist persuasion in certain contexts, we should recognize that it takes cognitive effort to do so. Recall from article 6 our discussion of self-regulatory depletion. The notion of measurable, attainable, self-propelled hope embedded within hope theory is so logical, it's easy not to notice how much power it ascribes to us as individuals. It's predicated on the assumption that if you want something badly enough and can think through the right route to achieving it, even though the outcome is not certain, it could actually come true. I question the way hope theory positions individuals as omnipotent. Yet even with these reservations, I find hope theory compelling, and useful when it comes to taking personal environmental actions. I find it reassuring to imagine that hope is within our own purview: it depends on our personal motivations, pathways, sense of agency, and goals. Through their research, Rick Snyder and his collaborators found that hopeful people had the ability to find many routes to a goal. They also found people could be taught to develop this skill. In other words, we could shape our hopeful futures--and we could be taught how to do so. So how can you learn to be hopeful? According to hope theory scholars, when you find something you are deeply excited about, and you are good at it, invest your time in doing it. Throughout the article, we have tried to balance the need to share our clients' stories with you with our promise of their anonymity. In order to achieve this, we have sometimes changed the names, the sport, the industry, and other identifying factors.

In the end, these factors are actually irrelevant. As you are about to find out, our article, Dominate, consists of principles that will stand the test of time, and that anyone, in any profession, can use to dominate any aspect of their life. You will become so good, they can't ignore you. Part I: The Challenge Are you tired of doing the exact same thing as everyone else around you? Overwhelmed with the herd mentality or the amount of false information out there? Not sure who to trust or what is best for you? If you are doing the same thing as everyone else, then you are simply on the hamster wheel that the sports organizations have designed for you. From this perspective, people's ability to control their thoughts, desires, and intentions can be weakened with repeated use. Although there is much discussion in the literature about whether these ego-depletion effects replicate well (Carter et al. Petrocelli et al. Burkley (2008) examined this connection in a few different ways. In one study, students had to squeeze a handgrip exerciser continuously for either a short time or a long time. They were then exposed to an argument for shortening summer vacation to only one month. Obviously this argument is one with which most students would not agree. Yet those students who engaged in continuous handgrip activity were more persuaded by the argument than those who did not. The idea that resistance to persuasion takes cognitive or motivational effort offers an interesting way of understanding considerably more dramatic forms of intense indoctrination or interviewing, from police interrogation to more unsavory tactics of torture. The subjects may be deprived of basic sustenance needs such as food or sleep in an effort to wear them down--that is, to make them more open to the examiner's questions. You will start having a flurry of hopeful thoughts. Hopeful thinking causes hopeful emotions, in the sense that positive feelings emerge from our sense of our own capacity to achieve our desired goals.

Feeling hopeful about one thing carries over to other situations, hope theory says. Successes help you to feel excited and enthusiastic, and thus more hopeful about other things. How individuals help bold actions become everyday practices Plus, there's a shortcut to hopefulness. Choosing to spend time with a hopeful person enables you to witness how that person puts those steps into action, making it easier for you to apply them to your own life. Recently, I heard about research done by a doctoral student named Steve Westlake. He found that people who take bold environmental action, like giving up flying, can have a wider knock-on effect (what psychologists call social influence) by helping to shift what other people view as normal. I met Sarah-Mae several years ago in Monterey, California, when she decided to try to live for a year without using plastic. Let us start by looking at the stats and the breakdown of the reasons you need to make a fundamental shift to become an elite athlete in your sport. The 2016 surveys will show you the odds of a high school athlete becoming a pro in the United States according to The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN), and the Wall Street Journal (WSJ). For Football, 72,788 out of 1,083,617 high school athletes were eligible to play in college. Only 245 were drafted into the professional leagues. That is 1 in 4,233 athletes which is 0. For Men's Basketball, 18,697 out of 541,479 high school athletes were eligible to play in college. Only 46 were drafted into the professional leagues. That is 1 in 11,771 which is less than 0. For Women's Basketball, 16,589 out of 429,504 high school athletes were eligible to play in college. Only 33 were drafted into the professional leagues. This can be considered the ultimate way of breaking down resistance to persuasion, paving the way for changing someone's attitude. SECTION REVIEW Resistance to Persuasion

Resistance is not always futile. If we're aware of a persuasive appeal, we're better able to resist it. Reactance theory explains why people resist persuasion attempts that infringe on their freedom. Culture influences how much people value freedom and, thus, how strongly they react to persuasion attempts. Inoculation As with a vaccine, people can build up resistance by defending themselves against weaker arguments first. Consequences of Forewarning Given the motivation and the means to resist opens people's minds to legitimate appeals. She gave herself particular exceptions--she could use plastic if she was at the hospital for medical treatment, for instance--and she was fully aware of the plastic in the paint on the walls in her apartment and at work, and so on; But for the things she could control, she fully committed to the challenge. Even products like canned tomatoes and milk in glass bottles turned out to be tricky, and she found herself petitioning companies to remove the plastic lining in canned foods and the plastic bottle caps on milk that comes in glass bottles. Two specific things stuck with me in her approach. First, for every piece of single-use plastic she used, even if she specifically told someone not to give her a plastic straw or to place a plastic sticker on a bagless apple, she would do fifteen minutes of beach cleanup. She held herself accountable as an individual, even if the plastic was thrust upon her by someone else. The second thing was that she lived with a roommate who continued to bring home lettuce and other produce in single-use plastic bags. Sarah-Mae did not get sidetracked by what her housemate was doing. She focused on her own actions. She didn't demand others live plastic free; That is 1 in 13,015 people which is less than 0. For Baseball, 34,198 out of 486,567 high school athletes were eligible to play in college.

Only 738 were drafted into the professional leagues. That is 1 in 659 which is 0. For Men's Hockey, 4,071 out of 35,875 high school athletes were eligible to play in college. Only 60 were drafted into the professional leagues. That is 1 in 598 which is 0. For Men's Soccer, 24,477 out of 432,569 high school athletes were eligible to play in college. Only 75 were drafted into the professional leagues. That is 1 in 5,768 which is 0. The motivation to resist persuasion can be undermined. The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior Learning Outcomes Identify the factors that affect how well attitudes predict behavior. Describe what determines the strength of an attitude. Explain the process, or mechanisms, through which attitudes influence behavior. Earlier we said that attempts at changing people's attitudes have the ultimate goal of changing their behavior--for example, getting them to purchase a product, go on a date, or wear their seatbelts. But how well do attitudes really predict behavior? Consider your own experience. For instance, in anticipation of hanging out with a friend who constantly mooches off you, you might think, The next time Sven asks to borrow my car, I'm going to tell him what I really think. She may not have influenced her roommate (I don't know what that person is doing now), but I witnessed the impact of her bold action as it spread to many other people. Some people argue against focusing on individual climate change actions.

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