Wednesday, 4 November 2020

I have the right to feel that I am loved

You can either base them on a feeling, or you can process the information and arrive at a conclusion. Both work, it's just that using feelings to make decisions is faster. Because we need to make quick decisions every day, we often rely on System 1's astute ability to recognize patterns. But if we rely mainly on pattern recognition to solve problems, it can lead to poor and sometimes even irrational results. Daniel Kahneman's, the Nobel Prize Winner, explores this concept in his article Thinking Fast and Slow. Try solving the following mathematical problem: A bat and ball cost $1. The bat costs one dollar more than the ball. How much does the ball cost? If you reached a response quickly and your answer was $0. You would likely focus on what people have contributed in the past, maybe creating tiers (as many organizations do) that indicate whether people have given at the gold, silver, or bronze level. Certainly, you would not rank people in terms of how much they kept for themselves or how much they still have left over after having donated. A simple laboratory experiment confirmed this. Participants were placed in a dictator game, where individuals were given a certain amount of money that they were to divide as they wished between themselves and an anonymous person. Researchers found that people gave substantially more in a generosity tournament, where they were ranked publicly from most to least generous, as compared to an earnings tournament, where they were ranked based on how much they had kept for themselves. In brief, social comparisons matter--on almost anything that we can measure--but we have to focus people's attention on the outcome that we care about. Exploring this further, Richard Zeckhauser and I became interested in whether people also take fairness clues from others. We ran a modified version of the ultimatum game introduced in article 11. It turns the dictator game described above into a bargaining game where the proposer can offer the receiver a sum of money which she can accept or reject. If she rejects it, however, all the money is lost, including the amount that the proposer was hoping to keep for himself.

Anything to get their way. The High Mach would much rather be subtle about their tactics. They masquerade as being friendly, they pour on the charm, make you feel guilty, and share stuff with you about themselves when they must, to give you a false sense of solidarity. This way, they can conceal their actual intentions and give themselves room for plausible deniability if you catch them at their game. They're not above pressure and threats when needed. Most people would rather have the High Mach on their side with negotiations, debates, and other competitive situations. However, no one wants to have them as colleagues, friends, or spouses. How to Spot Your Sadistic Psychopath This is the psychopath, summed up in a Ted Bundy quote: I don't feel guilty for anything. I feel sorry for people who feel guilt. It ended up answering too fast, and therefore did not understand the problem fully. Now try to solve this question again, but this time do it step by step. Our systems are designed to help us conserve energy, which is why System 1 does most of the difficult work. It only makes room for System 2 in situations it can't understand. But our systems can often be deceived, and in the problem stated above, System 1 was duped into thinking the problem was simpler than it was. Because it assumed it could handle the problem on its own, it ended up making a mistake. Although well-meaning, System 1 also encourages lazy thinking. It minimizes the energy we use for every task and employs what is known as the Law of Least Effort. System 2 is an important part of our intelligence and by practicing tasks that require us to use it, we can learn more focus and self-control, which then leads to greater intelligence scores. For example, with the bat and ball problem, had we taken the time to think, we would have come to the right conclusion.

If the receiver accepts, the deal stays as proposed. When Richard and I told all participants that we would inform the receivers of the average amount given by the proposers before they had to make their accept/reject decision, proposers converged on a norm. In our case, this was an equal split. Proposers feared that receivers would punish deviations from what others did, and they were right. Making public and visible how well a company or country does in terms of gender equality compared to others might also promote convergence on a new norm. Indeed, a number of organizations now provide social comparisons or explicit rankings based on gender equality. In 2006, the World Economic Forum (WEF) launched its annual Global Gender Gap Report measuring the existing gender gaps in four categories: economic participation and opportunity (pay, participation, and leadership), political empowerment (representation), education (access), and health and survival (life expectancy and sex ratio at birth). Since then, the WEF has annually published a report measuring how the gaps are changing over time. It ranks countries on their overall performance, as well as on how well they do in all four categories. Over nine years, the Nordic countries have been leading the pack with Iceland having closed the overall gap by 87. Fortunately, for most of us, we need not deal with psychopaths in our everyday lives. However, if you have to, it helps to know the person you're dealing with. Here are various traits noticeable in this personality: Manipulation is considered high art to them. Perhaps the psychopath is the grandmaster of manipulation. They know how to suck you into their lies, make you see what they want you to see, and nothing more. Even when you know the truth, and it niggles at you in the back of your mind, they know how to make you desperate to believe their version of events. They are experts at reading people. The psychopath has an uncanny ability to size you up in just an instant at your first meeting. They hardly ever get it wrong.

Because the math isn't complicated, all we needed to do was check in with the other system. But by not using it, we ended up limiting the strength of our intelligence. So now that we know all of this, which system would you choose for decision making? If the answer is System 2, you have fallen prey to the same trap. System 1 was trying to make the easy decision for you, telling me what I want to hear so that I'd stop asking difficult questions. But if you thought about it, you'd find that both systems have their place in our lives. System 1 is automatic, and yes I'll admit, impulsive, but it is still able to function and synthesize complex patterns of ideas (our experiences and understanding of the world do count for something). System 2 allows us to order them seemingly and logically. Both systems are agents that have their strengths, limitations, and roles. System 1 is what we have in common with other animals. Generally, Middle Eastern and North African countries have fared worst, with Yemen having closed only 51. Saadia Zahidi of the WEF and the lead author of the report explains: The notion that gender equality is not only the right thing to do, but the smart thing is a fairly new mindset that did not exist in the public consciousness even five years ago. Klaus Schwab, the founder and chairman of the WEF, adds: Achieving gender equality is obviously necessary for economic reasons. Only those economies who have full access to all their talent will remain competitive and will prosper. But even more important, gender equality is a matter of justice. As a humanity, we also have the obligation to ensure a balanced set of values. Related country reports and rankings, each with a slightly different focus and methodology, have since been created by the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the OECD, and the European Institute for Gender Equality, among others. While what facets of gender equality they measure and track differ--some focus on gaps between men and women, for example, in economic opportunity, and others look at absolute rates, for example, in terms of workforce participation; In 2009, the World Bank started to collect data on Women, Business, and the Law, which analyzes the legal differentiations on the basis of gender in 143 economies around the world. The report covers six areas in relation to gender: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court.

Best believe they will explore every weakness about you they can. Somehow, they can home in on your soft spot and take advantage of it. Whether you've got a big heart, or you are all about a big score, a quick and easy win, or you're just gullible, they'll know, and they'll use it. When you're in a personal relationship with a psychopath, they will learn everything about you they can, and then they will turn that knowledge into an arsenal of deadly weapons they expertly wield against you, cutting you down bit by bloody bit, until there's nothing left of you. Sounds dramatic, but that's the psychopath. They are charming. Not that you should be wary of charming people; That's their thing. They don't even have to try. They will blindside you with pain. It allows us to recognize objects, to operate out of fear, and to minimize our losses, and the more experiences we collect, the more adept it becomes at arriving at conclusions. It does this by making associations and linkages. But while it allows us to arrive home safely unaware of the route we've driven because of sheer repetition, it also tells us to avoid subways in Paris because we got mugged at a subway there once. That is where System 1 is dangerous, where it jumps to a conclusion based on logical fallacies. Here, we have to spend some time and effort to understand the situation. Using the example before, while we may have been mugged at a subway in Paris, it is unlikely that we will get mugged every time we use the subway there. While it is probable, it is not to be expected. This type of thinking has to be cultivated and requires effort on our part. Some people argue that to learn how to use System 2, we have to engage in close, focused attention, but that's not true. If our attention is too focused, we could miss out on things happening around us that may be of interest.

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