Wednesday, 4 November 2020

I have the right to love freely

When we informed them about a session where most employers had chosen majority-female teams for both math and verbal tasks, men reacted by choosing fewer women. Under that condition, about 70 percent chose majority-male teams, in both the math and the verbal tasks! The nudge had moved them in the wrong direction and cost women 10 percentage points in the math task and 30 percentage points in the verbal task. In contrast, when we informed male employers about a session where most employers had chosen majority-male teams, not much happened. Neither did anything happen for female employers. On average, women pretty much chose male and female employees equally, independent of the information provided. Such male defense of the status quo is not unprecedented. After all, we are in a zero-sum world. Increasing the fraction of one gender in a team means decreasing the share of the other gender--unless one can make the team bigger. Deutsche Telekom was one of the first large companies, and the first DAX-30 company, to introduce a gender quota for its middle and senior management. Narcissism: The word narcissism is from Greek mythology. There was a hunter named Narcissus, who had fallen deeply in love with his reflection, which he'd spotted by chance in a pool of water. He fell so deeply in love he fell into the water and drowned. Narcissists are selfish, lacking in empathy, arrogant, boastful, and overly sensitive to criticism. Machiavellianism: This world exists thanks to Niccolo Machiavelli, an Italian politician and diplomat from the 16th century. He wrote a article called The Prince in 1513, and it was basically awash with praise for deceit and cunning in diplomatic matters. Machiavellian traits include manipulation, duplicity, self-interest, and a lack of morality and emotion. Psychopathy: The traits of psychopathy include antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and being volatile and manipulative. Remember that there's a difference between being an actual psychopath and simply having psychopathic traits. Often, psychopaths engage in criminal violence.

They conducted this in groups or sometimes with just one other person. They did this over 6,000 times only to discover that they got help 20% of the time in a group, 40% of the time when there was one other person. They decided to take this one step further. In their next experiment, they asked one participant to fill out a questionnaire. Within a few minutes, smoke would begin to fill the room, entering through a vent in the wall. This experiment had two versions, one where the person was alone and the other where two other people were also filling out the questionnaire. When people were alone, it took them five seconds to act, but within groups, it took people around 20 seconds to even notice. When alone, the participant would go and examine where the smoke was coming from and then inform the experimenter that something was wrong, while in the other, people were oblivious or refused to act until the smoke was thick enough to impact visibility. In total, three people out of twenty-six in the group experiment did something about it, and even so it took them six minutes to rise to action. I think what's distressing for most of us is that while we assume ourselves to be moral and assertive, our behavior doesn't always live up to our beliefs. On March 15, 2010, it announced that by the end of 2015, it wanted to have 30 percent women in its middle and senior ranks. As has happened in other companies with gender diversity goals, many men were not excited about this prospect. They saw, quite literally, their slice of the middle and upper management pie shrinking in front of their eyes. German journalists wrote about discrimination of men, the battle of the sexes, and asked where to put the men. Thus, male resistance to interventions favoring women is real, whether in the laboratory, in corporate offices, and, maybe, even in board rooms. Aaron Dhir, in his 2015 article, Challenging Boardroom Homogeneity, argues that gender diversity norms, while often espoused in theory, have not become a reality in most board rooms yet. He is more optimistic about the United Kingdom. The UK government appears to have been able to play the role of a norm entrepreneur, a term coined by Cass Sunstein in 1996. Without relying on legally mandated gender representation on boards, it has been able to move the needle. Norm entrepreneurs build on latently available notions of right and wrong, even if people treat such notions more as theoretical concerns rather than guidelines determining their actions.

All these personalities are incredibly difficult to read. The narcissist, for instance, has mastered the art of seeming sincere and true when needed. They're a master at reflecting whatever you want to see. So how do you spot these people? How to Spot Your Neighborhood Narcissist The narcissist oozes charm like no one else. A study showed that you could only see through their smoke and mirrors by the seventh time you meet them. Falling in love with them can ruin you. Literally, they will take a greatly confident person with high self-esteem and turn them into unrecognizable versions of themselves. Here are the hallmarks of Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Think about yourself on a daily level. Has there been a time where you saw someone in trouble and you didn't stop to help? Why is it that some people are more likely to help than others? The first cure to The Bystander Effect is understanding why we fall victim to it. One reason is our assumption that we don't need to take responsibility if there is someone else willing to assume it instead of us, and the second is people's need to behave in a manner that is socially acceptable. When other people fail to act, individuals think that they don't need to act either. Group cohesiveness comes into play since, in a crisis situation, things often seem chaotic, and people look to others to figure out how to act. When they see no one else react, they believe that they don't need to take action. Onlookers are also less likely to intervene if the situation is ambiguous (eg, in Kitty's case, people believed that she was having a fight with her lover and did not realize that she was being murdered). And even if some people realized she was being murdered, it is a natural reaction for a person to go into shock if they witness violence;

Dhir believes that the United States could be fertile ground for norm entrepreneurship around diversity. He reports on the many businesses that supported the US Supreme Court's 2003 decision to uphold the University of Michigan Law School's affirmative action policy in Grutter v. The firms filed an amicus curiae brief arguing that American businesses needed to have access to a diverse talent pool to compete in an increasingly global world with ever-growing diversity. A few years later, many of the same firms submitted another brief in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, basically repeating their earlier arguments and stating that the case for diversity had become even more compelling. Norm entrepreneurship can help these organizations embrace diversity not just as a principle but also as a practice. Invoking what others do appears to be more likely to work at resetting norms the less people perceive the consequences as zero-sum. Organizations need to find ways to increase the pie, for example, by increasing the size of executive committees or boards, an approach that many Norwegian companies opted for when they had to comply with the quota of having 40 percent female directors. The fixed-pie mentality is a well-known barrier to creative problem solving. How people see competition matters. A grand sense of self-importance, where they overhype their talents, skills, and achievements. The narcissist wants you to know how awesome they are. If they haven't actually achieved anything yet, they will brag to you about how they're going to. They need to be constantly appreciated, recognized, and validated. Dreams and aspirations of unlimited success, power, beauty, brilliance, or ideal love. A need for constant, excess admiration. As for the narcissist, their job is to talk about themselves, and your job is to listen. They won't ask about you. When you do chip in something about your own life, they're quick to turn the spotlight back on themselves. This can quickly get annoying and boring.

Charles Garlfield, a clinical professor of psychology at the University of California, tried to examine the difference between bystanders and people who showed moral courage. We all have the potential to fall in either category, and it's only minor details of a certain situation that can push us in either direction. A major contributor to this research was a psychologist named Ervin Straub who took keen interest because of his own experiences as a Jewish child in Hungary during World War II. He dedicated his life to gather what motivated her to put her own life at risk; In his experiment, a study participant and a confederate were placed in a room together and were to work on a task together. Soon after, they heard crashes and cries of people who seemed to be in trouble. The confederate dismissed it and said it sounded like a tape, which could have been a part of another experiment; BUT in the situation where the confederate said it sounded like something bad was happening, 66% of the participants took action. In the case that the confederate asked the participants to check where the sound was coming from, every single one attempted to help. Another study showed Staub that kindergarten and first-grade children were more likely to respond to the sound of distress when they were in pairs compared to if they were alone. If people perceive every additional person joining the labor force as a threat, they will be less welcoming of new entrants, including women. In her analysis of the relationship between people's attitudes and women's workforce participation, Fortin finds that in countries where men had a more favorable view of competition, women's employment rates were higher. Nevertheless, some constraints are real, and choices have to be made. Men who have been standing in line for the next top job will not be excited about additional competition from women. That this is so should strike us as neither surprising nor new. Those who benefit from existing practices and norms generally do not cheer when barriers to entry for new competitors are lowered; But ignoring those concerns can backfire, as the research on intergroup threat suggests. In the worst case, increasing women's economic independence has led to a surge in domestic violence, evidence from Bangladesh and India suggests. Thus, when changing norms, taking both winners and losers into account is the prudent and the pragmatic approach. One such approach is reaping the benefits that can come from people comparing themselves with others.

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