Sunday, 1 November 2020

Relaxation techniques

So that's the case for prejudice being a bad thing. The people who hold prejudices usually justify them with stereotypes--overgeneralized beliefs about the traits and attributes of members of a particular group, such as African Americans are violent, Jews are cheap, White men can't jump, Latinos are lazy, and so forth. Not all stereotypic traits attributed to a group are negative, but overall, stereotypes of outgroups tend to be negative. Later in this article, we will consider where these stereotypes come from, how they affect us, and how they are perpetuated. As we will learn, stereotypes provide conscious justifications for prejudice and lead to implicit biases against outgroups. Stereotypes Overgeneralized beliefs about the traits and attributes of members of a particular group. People holding prejudices and stereotypes, either consciously or unconsciously, often leads to discrimination -- negative behavior toward an individual solely on the basis of membership in a particular group. This unexpected act of generosity brought the spirit of radical hospitality to life. We felt supported and inspired to share ideas and to really get to know one another as we walked the beaches of Monterey and chatted on my front porch. I am convinced that generous beginning helped us to move our agenda forward even though we lived and worked in different countries. Heather's desire to source and share hopeful marine solutions arose from her concern about the tendency for scientists to publish problem analyses rather than conservation successes. Heather travels extensively in her role as head of the Zoological Society of London's marine and freshwater conservation programs. She frequently encounters marine conservation practitioners working in isolation without access to proven approaches. Nancy's interest in focusing on hopeful solutions stemmed from witnessing the impact of doom and gloom on the graduate students she taught, and on the field of marine science more broadly. An entire generation of scientists has now been trained to describe, in ever greater and more dismal detail, the death of the ocean, she wrote in an article with her husband, the noted marine scientist Jeremy Jackson. In an attempt to balance that view, Nancy hosted what she called Beyond the Obituaries sessions at major international science conferences. Scientists were invited to only share conservation success stories. And what humanly seems contradictory to us may be a divine paradox. Thus, in Ephesians 5:21-33 it becomes obvious that husbands and wives are equal in every respect save one--authority and responsibility.

As we've begun to see, this inequality in authority-responsibility is mitigated inasmuch as the husband carries this as his own peculiar burden before the Lord. It is not to be envied, only supported prayerfully. What truly does alleviate all wifely fear is the call to mutual love and Christlike service at the heart of this paradoxical relationship. Its beauty, symmetry, and fairness unfold as we place ourselves within these special conditions under which biblical marriage functions. Headship is not at all a husband's becoming a master, boss, tyrant, authoritarian--the dominant coercive force. Neither does it imply control or restriction, his being assertive and hers being suppressed. It cannot mean he assumes any prerogatives of greater virtue, intelligence, or ability. It does not mean that he is active and she passive, he the voice and she the silent partner. Discrimination comes in many forms, ranging from cold behavior at a party to declining someone's loan application to torture and genocide. Discrimination is often the consequence of the negative attitude (prejudice) and beliefs (stereotypes) a person holds. But as you'll recall, attitudes don't always guide behavior. Because of laws, cultural norms, and competing values to be egalitarian, we can be thankful that people's behaviors are not always biased by prejudice and stereotypes. Discrimination Negative behavior toward an individual solely on the basis of that person's membership in a particular group. SECTION REVIEW The Nature of Prejudice: Pervasiveness and Perspective Prejudice is the most heavily studied topic in social psychology, likely because of its historical pervasiveness and destructiveness. Prejudice is a negative attitude toward an individual based solely on that person's presumed membership in a particular group, without consideration of the unique individual, group variability, or potential for violence against the innocent. Stereotypes are overgeneralized beliefs about the traits and attributes of members of a particular group. She thought a few people might show up. To her surprise, the sessions were packed.

In 2014, with the help of Elisabeth Whitebread, a global marine community organizer, we gathered a small group of creative people together in a little village on the outskirts of London, England. We challenged ourselves to use the forty-eight-hour workshop to create and pilot a social-change project to engage people with ocean conservation successes and shift the environmental narrative beyond doom and gloom. The result was #OceanOptimism--a social media campaign that crowdsources and shares ocean solutions and successes that are currently happening all over the world. We launched it on World Oceans Day, June 8, 2014, and it has reached more than 90 million shares to date. Following the success of #OceanOptimism, Nancy Knowlton has led the Smithsonian Institution in a massive Earth Optimism initiative that includes an international summit with sister events spread around the globe, as well as an ongoing #EarthOptimism social media campaign. Other organizations and groups are rapidly following suit. The University of Oxford now hosts #ConservationOptimism. And influential thought leaders, including Jane Lubchenco, University Distinguished Professor at Oregon State University, are calling for new solutions-based narratives for the environment. Nor does it mean that he is the tribal chief, the family manager, the one who has superior rights or privileges. He is not the decision-maker, problem-solver, goal-setter, or director of everyone else in the family's life. Rather he is primarily responsible for their common advance toward freedom and fellowship--creating a partnership of equals under one responsible head. A truly loving husband will regard his wife as a completely equal partner in everything that concerns their life together. He will assert his headship to see that this equal partnership is kept inviolable. Hers is to be an equal contribution in areas, say, of decision-making, conflict-resolution, emerging family developmental planning, and daily family management. Whether it concerns finances or child discipline or social life--whatever it may be, she is an equal partner. Loving headship affirms, defers, shares; Loving headship delights to delegate without demanding. Yet, throughout the equalitarian process, the husband knows all the while that he bears the responsibility before God for the healthful maintenance of the marriage. Discrimination is negative behavior toward an individual based solely on that person's presumed membership in a particular group. The Roots of Prejudice: Three Basic Causes

Learning Outcomes Explain the connection between hostile feelings, categorizing people, and prejudice. Describe the relationship between self-esteem and prejudice. Identify why people are prone to ethnocentric biases. Given all the harm that has come from prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination, why are these phenomena so prevalent? This is one of the central questions that Gordon Allport addressed in his classic article The Nature of Prejudice (1954). Allport proposed three basic causes of prejudice, each of which is an unfortunate consequence of some very basic aspects of human thought and feeling. Gordon Allport's article The Nature of Prejudice launched decades of research on the subject. A significant barrier to feeling hopeful about the future and amplifying solutions is lack of easy access to what's working. Today, with a simple click on #OceanOptimism, I am awash in uplifting news of marine conservation successes: a new marine sanctuary in the Galapagos Islands to protect the world's highest concentrations of sharks; We are not at the starting line I wish I could share a complete list of hopeful environmental trends, but that list is too vast and ever-growing to capture. Too often our language around climate change and other environmental issues is if we do this, then we have a chance of this. The future orientation of the phrasing feeds a mistaken impression that nothing has been done. It creates the daunting sense that all of the hard work lies ahead. I consciously try to counteract this starting-line fallacy by talking about the environment in the present tense, and positioning current issues within a trajectory of past accomplishments--Monterey Bay is healthier now than it has been in the past two hundred years thanks to all the people who pushed for marine protected areas, fishing regulations, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and other conservation measures across many decades, and that's why it's so important to support the rapidly growing global trend to ban single-use plastic. Solutions are not final, perfect end points. They're ongoing processes that require monitoring and adjustment to achieve meaningful results. To put it simply, a servant's role is to make sure that the other person's needs are met. In a husband-wife relationship, being a servant is an act of love, a gift to the other person.

It is not something to be demanded. It is an act of strength and not of weakness. It is a positive action chosen to show your love to each another. Hence, the apostle Paul also said, Be subject to one another (Eph. In a husband-wife relationship, being a servant is an act of love, a gift to the other person. It is not something to be demanded. It is an act of strength and not of weakness. A servant may also be called an enabler. Hostile Feelings Linked to a Category Allport viewed the first fundamental cause of prejudice to be a result of two basic human tendencies. First, people are likely to feel hostility when they are frustrated or threatened, or when they witness things they view as unpleasant or unjust. Second, just as we routinely categorize objects (see article 3), we also categorize other people as members of social groups, such as women, Asians, and teenagers, often within milliseconds of encountering them (Dickter & Bartholow, 2007; Fiske, 1998; Ito & Bartholow, 2009). Prejudice often results from linking hostile feelings to such salient categories of people. Let's consider a few examples of how this might occur. Imagine a Frenchman robbed at gunpoint by another Frenchman in Marseilles. The victim will likely experience fear and anger, hate the robber, and hope he is caught and imprisoned. Solutions are directions that require constant vigilance. But the need for vigilance shouldn't prevent us from forward action.

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