In Vision Training we think of the exterior eye muscles as if they were a hydraulic system. In other words, persistent fear of a situation, which in some cases triggers panic attacks, characterised by the vicious circle that goes into a spin without anything virtuous to ease it. Even if we put aside the best-known phobias (spiders, snakes, large spaces, small spaces, public speaking, flying and, obviously, death), the number of those officially listed is truly high. One can have an irrepressible fear of passing time, demons, dentists, cold, sun, the colour red, germs, numbers, smells, dreams, mirrors, sex organs, being looked at, being alone, and so forth. There is nothing new: the neural substrates of fear are always the same and involve the amygdalae as well as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland pathway. Phobias usually spring from psychological traumas, but not without some genetic help. It's been proved that, in many cases, cognitive behavioural therapies manage to alleviate, if not actually erase, many phobias. There is footage, available on YouTube, of former arachnophobes quite happily holding large hairy spiders in their hands. At the most severe end of the scale of such disorders, though not necessarily connected to fear, we find a range of mental miscalculations people can suffer based around a single fixation - so-called monothematic delusions. These can derive from traumas, brain damage or more serious mental illnesses. Some believe that a friend or relative has been replaced by a double. Most people would be willing to help you provided they knew how. The more specific you are, the more people will be in the position to give you sound advice or introduce you to someone who will. Taking consistent action in line with a clearly defined strategy Another way to generate luck is to take more action in the real world. Now the point is not to take random actions or fall for short-term tricks or gimmicks, hoping you'll achieve some success. The idea is to take actions that are aligned with your strategy. The more of these actions you take, the more likely you are to get lucky. Learning as much as you can from the feedback you receive from reality The more action you take, the more feedback you will receive from reality.
By learning from feedback and adjusting your actions accordingly, you will create a better model of reality which will involve higher quality assumptions. Therefore, in strabismus we need to adjust the setting of the muscle that is held too tense and to firm up the muscle that is relaxed too much. In other words try to encourage a natural balance in the way the eyes are co-ordinated. How well does Vision Training work for strabismus? Children usually respond very quickly to Vision Training so the amount of time to be invested is usually only a few weeks and at the most a few months of daily training. The wonderful thing about Vision Training is that the child is getting his or her normal vision restored. In continental Europe the focus of functional optometrists is the treatment of strabismus in children. It is a program that lasts for about a year with regular visits to the optometrist and promises a very high degree of success. We want to encourage the strabismic eye to co-ordinate with the other eye. This is done by using a piece of string as the reference point. The aim is to see the phantom cross that is present when the eyes are co-ordinated and converge on the object of interest. Others think that when they meet several different people, they are in reality just meeting one person capable of taking on different identities. Others don't believe that they are the person reflected in the mirror. And others, after a stroke, categorically rule out the idea that their left arm, say, or the entire right side of their body belongs to them. This last case is known as somatoparaphrenia. We could go on. A brain affected with body integrity identity disorder longs to lose a specific limb through amputation, often with a sexual excitement component, while with acrotomophilia, the burning desire is to have sex with an amputee. Here we are on the brink of extremes, where calculation errors become malfunctions. In the final stages in the evolution of Homo sapiens, a few drastic changes in genetic expression have contributed to the increase in brain activity, and to the quality and plasticity of synaptic connections. There are those who believe that this increase in complexity has left the brain vulnerable to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease respectively.
Although other animal species are not immune from them, humans seem to be markedly more vulnerable to brain malfunctions. Armed with sound assumptions, you'll make better decisions and achieve superior results. In short, we can sum up the process as follows: More action. Always make sure you are continuously learning from your mistakes. As you do so, you'll achieve much better results in the long term. Using your action guide, complete the corresponding exercises to start generating more luck. This is a great way to guide your thinking and invite smart answers that inspire effective actions. Now let's see what the different types of empowering questions are. I love how questions because they invite you to search for solutions. Instead of telling yourself your biggest goals are impossible, it is far more empowering to look at your goals and ask yourself how you can achieve them. In children this may be of lesser consequence, since the difference may be within the accommodative powers of the eye. For the major part of strabismus training, we use a piece of string as a feedback device. In Vision Training it is important to always involve the brain to provide a clear response. The string provides both a measure of progress as well as clear feedback as to when you have succeeded. To attain the first objective of correcting the divergence between the two eyes, follow these steps. You will need somebody to assist with this exercise. Hold the string to the tip of your nose in such a way that you have a straight line. Ask your assistant to hold the other end of the string. Cover the good eye by placing a hand over it to block out all vision.
This will force the brain to engage the divergent eye. Derek Paravicini lives in London and has been playing the piano since the age of two. Now that he is nearly 40, he appears in shows and TV programmes where the audience makes requests and he plays any song from memory. Apparently he knows over 20,000 tunes. Born prematurely and the victim of the wrong therapy in the incubator, Derek is blind and suffers from problems caused by abnormal brain development during childhood. If he had been born a century or two earlier, he would have been hired by a circus or a freak show. Had he been born even earlier, he might have been locked up or even terminated. Derek is autistic, like 25 million other people in the world. Now that disorders of the autistic spectrum are no longer labelled the work of the devil, they are mostly treated and respected. No two cases are the same. To generalise, we might say that people with autism experience, to a very variable degree, difficulties in interpersonal relations and communication, restricted (if not obsessive) interests and a preference for repetitive behaviours. As you brainstorm ways to reach your goals, you'll come up with many great ideas and will feel inspired to take action and press forward. Whenever you find yourself thinking I can't do this, immediately erase that thought and ask yourself, How can I do this? I can't make a living doing what I love. I can't retire before I'm sixty-five. Now that I have kids, I can't travel as much as I'd like to. Thinking you can't do something is never a good idea. For sure, there are certain things you genuinely can't do, but whenever you find yourself thinking you can't do something, ask yourself the question How can I? Then see what answers you come up with. What if questions are great because they leverage the power of your imagination, one of the most powerful tools in your arsenal.
They also remove some pressure from your shoulders since you don't need to believe you can do something (yet). Usually the eye is perfectly capable of moving and focusing on the object of interest. Use a colorful object such as a marker pen and move the pen in the plane where the eye is diverging. For example, if the eyes are moving inward (esotropia) then move the pen back and forth so the brain moves the eye muscles that need to be adjusted. Move the pen back and forth (in the plane where the eye diverges) using larger and larger movements so that you become aware that your eyes can indeed track an object. Then make the movements smaller and smaller as you settle on the string, like a butterfly fluttering about before finally settling on a flower. The gradually smaller movements help train the divergent eye. Now very slowly open the good eye. At one point you will have a brief glimpse of the phantom cross that occurs when both eyes converge. Initially this may be just a brief moment. Eventually it will be longer and longer until the eyes begin to track together. In some cases, the impact of the disorder is minimal. In others, it's considerable. Some autistic people sometimes become idiots savants, like Derek Paravicini, or Raymond, the character played by Dustin Hoffman in the film Rain Man. Other disorders on the autistic spectrum include neurodevelopment conditions such as Asperger's Syndrome (which affects the ability to understand others, not language or intelligence) and the `pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified' (an atypical form of autism because it appears only in adulthood, and doesn't yet have a proper name). Despite a deeply rooted myth, there is not the slightest evidence that autism is linked to childhood vaccines. Its causes are unknown but genetic predisposition is proved by its prevalence in identical twins. Firstly, because the term is used inappropriately (`we have lost the World Cup, so I'm depressed') as well as in serious clinical cases. Secondly, because a mood that tends towards being low can be caused by a malfunction of the central nervous system, but also by a myriad of other conditions and disorders: auto-immune diseases, bacterial or viral infections, eating disorders, endocrine system disorders, concussion, multiple sclerosis, tumours or other mental illnesses (such as bipolar disorder, where depressive phases alternate with manic phases), which require different treatment and care. Leaving aside sad but temporary states of mind that every brain may experience in life (but which are not classified as malfunctions), chronic depression is a phenomenon of great importance.