What if the very thing that makes these people unusual - their fanatical devotion to following instructions, perhaps - contributes as much to the study outcomes as the diet assignments do? How sad it would be to spend $27 billion on a lifelong dietary intervention study only to learn at the end that the interesting results pertain only to the 0. I have an idea: let's not waste the money. One of the potentially important deficits in the visual field of nutritional epidemiology is the simple matter of instead of what ? Siegler, Samuel, 96-97 Silber, Sherman, 208 Simpson, James Young, 83 Marion, 34-48, 43, 210n Sims position created by, 42, 44 Sims, Theresa, 39 Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, 126 Sleeper, 216 Sloane Maternity Hospital, 68, 74 Smellie, William, 23, 29 Under these circumstances, breastfeeding causes an excess of a hormone called prolactin. The prolactin, in turn, lessens the production of estrogen and prevents ovulation. Without ovulation, no egg leaves the ovary to travel through the fallopian tubes. Intercourse during this time, therefore, may not result in conception. Barrier methods, which block the sperm from getting to the egg and thus prevent fertilization and the creation of an embryo, are accessible and popular in the United States. Most commonly known and used is the male condom.
Worn on a man's penis during intercourse, a condom prevents sperm from entering a woman's body and fertilizing an egg. Most male condoms today are made of latex or polyisoprene, and in addition to being effective forms of birth control, they also protect against most sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Condoms are available over the counter at most drug stores or pharmacies. They are not covered by health insurance plans. We all eat exactly 100% of the calories we eat. If we reduce our intake of food A, then we either replace that portion of our 100% with something else, or we simply eat less overall. If we eat less overall, then that becomes another variable, separate from the effects of less A. If we replace A with B, or with some suite of letters, then those effects are also important, and separate from the reduction in A. Change a food, in other words, and it does to diet what tossing a pebble does to the water of a pond: it sends rippling effects in every direction. This is in some ways a challenge to the understanding of the health effects of foods in isolation, although it might if anything facilitate understanding of such effects at the level of diet overall (see article 6 ). For our purposes here, we may simply note that it quite ineluctably makes the study of diet necessarily different from the study of drugs. It argues clearly and decisively against the application of one size fits all science . In summary, then, the thinking that we cannot know much of anything about the basic care and feeding of Homo sapiens absent randomized trials is wrong to the point of absurdity. But for the eyeblink of our most recent history, all biological species on this planet have sustained themselves with the right diets since long before the invention of science. Smith, George van Siclen, 132, 135, 138-41 Smith, Olive Watkins, 132, 135, 136, 138-41 Smith, Tovia, 227n Snow, John, 4 Society for Women's Health Research, 153 Society of the Lying-In, 67-68, 69, 73
Soranus of Ephesus, 8, 9, 10 South Africa, 116 South Carolina, 36-38 South Carolina Medical College, 37-38 They are disposable and only can be used once. Condoms come in different shapes, sizes, and textures; There are dozens of brands of male condoms available, including Trojan(R) and Durex(R). A female condom, sometimes also known as an internal condom, is worn by a woman. Made of plastic, it is inserted into the vagina and, like the male condom, provides a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching an egg. Like the male condom, the female condom is not covered by health insurance plans and protects against most forms of STIs. In the United States, the brand of female condom sold is the FC2 Female Condom(R). Usually made of silicone, a diaphragm is a cup-shaped or bowl-shaped barrier that is placed deep inside the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix. With the cervix covered, sperm are not able to travel to an egg. Diaphragms, marketed in the United States under the name Caya(R), frequently are used with spermicide, a chemical that makes it difficult for sperm to move. The basic biological sense of eating appropriately antedates science; It can and should be used to embellish it. From my perspective, it has been - and contributes importantly to the many truths (article 4 ) and the whole truth (article 6 ) we reliably know. The Gods Must Be Crazy . Any opinion about nutrition is tantamount to expert opinion. The answer to virtually any question under the sun (or about the sun, for that matter) is only as far away as the Google search box.
But with such great power comes great liabilities. Extreme views can now find succor, support, and amplification in the echo chambers of cyberspace. But perhaps the greatest liability of cyberspace is the ease with which opinion masquerades as expertise. This may be true for many topics - but it's certainly true for nutrition. Soviet-Russian and Communistic Chinese Method of Analgesic Delivery, 113 Soviet Union, 113 Spar, Debora, 239n, 241 Web sites of, 203-4, 205, 226 Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Practice in Britain, 1865-1900 (Worboys), 159n Stanford University, 220, 230 Sterility and Neurotics, 103 Stewart, Alice, 190-91 George's Episcopal Church, 75 Luke's Hospital (St. A cervical cap, sold as FemCap(R) in the United States, is a small cup that covers the cervix and prevents fertilization. It is similar to a diaphragm but is generally smaller and may be left in for a longer period of time after intercourse. Diaphragms and cervical caps must be fitted to your body by a physician and thus are only available in the United States via prescription. Like diaphragms and cervical caps, contraceptive sponges are placed in the vagina, covering the cervix, before sexual intercourse. To be effective, the sponge must remain in the vagina for approximately six hours after intercourse. Then it can be removed and disposed of.
The only brand of contraceptive sponge available in the United States is the Today(R) sponge. Spermicides, which can be gels, foams, or film, are available over the counter in most drug stores in the United States. Brand names include Contceptrol(R), Emko(R), Delfen Foam(R), Prochive(R), and Advantage-S(R). Spermicides are chemical substances that take the form of a gel, cream, lotion, suppository, foam, or film (vaginal contraceptive film). Everyone has opinions, of course, and we have probably all heard what they say about that. But leaving aside the olfactory qualities of all the opinions to which we are entitled, we at least tend to know when our opinions are just opinions. But not with nutrition, where not only does everyone have an opinion, but everyone seems to think theirs is an expert opinion. And our culture seems to be okay with that. By the same token, I'm not convinced that someone who happens to live through a bad car crash to drive again is automatically qualified to take over the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, or set up shop as a motor vehicle safety expert and dispense advice accordingly. Call me crazy. I am not at all sure that someone who inadvertently sets fire to his kitchen, and manages to put out the fire before burning everything entirely down, is a shoe-in as fire commissioner or qualifies as a fire safety expert. I am not sure that he should go on to establish a cottage industry in fire safety, selling expert advice in articles, blogs, and programs. I would have my doubts if someone who has driven for 10 years without ever having an airbag deploy writes a article, starts an organization, and launches a social movement to oppose airbags as a government conspiracy. I'm not entirely persuaded that someone who happens to have gone hiking in Alaska once without being eaten by a bear is de facto a leading authority on bears, and qualified to dispense expert guidance on how to handle them. Louis), 208 Stockman, Alice, 80 Studdiford, William, 126 Stuyvesant family, 72 C-sections and hysterectomies as the most common of, 154 Sylvia (patient), 95-96, 102, 105-6, 107