The result is that in some modern human populations of northern European descent nearly everyone is adapted to consume dairy, which is to say they remain lactose tolerant throughout life. Stated simply, then: human adaptation encompasses arguments both against and for dairy consumption. Finally, adaptation with implications for diet is among the reasons, if not the reason, for the variation in human skin pigment that has so bedeviled the history of our kind. Our kind originated near the equator, and the high concentrations of melanin that darken skin were something of a defense against the sun's potency in those latitudes. High concentrations of melanin, and thus dark skin, limit the efficiency of the skin's ability to manufacture what we now call vitamin D, an essential hormone, from sunlight. That inefficiency, however, was compensated for by the potency of sunlight, and the result, presumably, was the appropriate levels of activated vitamin D- or 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol - in the blood of our earliest equatorial ancestors. As humans spread away from the equator some obviously faced the challenges of adaptation to very different climates and levels of sun exposure. A particular genetic mutation, doubtless favored in populations far from our equatorial origins, has been associated with the transition from our native black skin to white. Gina's dream was to lose all her baby weight by the end of the year. Her goal was to lose a few pounds a month, to nurse Valentina until she was nine months old, and to power walk for forty-five minutes at least five days a week. Jamie's dream was to save enough money to take her two boys to Disney World before her oldest was ten years old. She did some careful planning and calculated that she would need to save at least $7,000 over the next three years. She realized if she gave up buying lunch and brown-bagged it for three years she would save enough money. When you're coming up with goals, keep in mind: Avision board is a blank space (for example, a piece of poster board or a bulletin board) that will serve as a life map of your hopes and dreams. The theory is that first you have to see it and believe it to eventually get it. To get started, be quiet and allow yourself to dream. Then go through old magazines and articles, and cut out or copy down words, images, and anything else that inspires you. Coming from the front is relevant owing to the difficulties of peripheral vision. Waiting to obtain eye contact ensures the person is prepared to interact with you.
Teepa Snow refers to this method of approach as connecting. The term `brain blindness' is sometimes used to explain situations where the eyes continue to function, but the part of the brain responsible for visual processing (occipital lobe) has been damaged (Houston, 2015). The use of short simple sentences means the person's comprehension skills are not over-taxed, and the quiet environment aids with attentional and concentration difficulties. Check the person can hear you, ensuring any hearing aids are functioning well. Go to a less noisy area of the room if possible. Talk clearly and slowly in short sentences. Pause between sentences, giving the person time to understand the information. Let the person see your face as this will assist with lip reading and provide clues to what you are saying. White skin is more sensitive to sunlight - and more efficient at using its influence to manufacture vitamin D. That skin pigment is least in populations least exposed to sunlight and thus forced to make the most vitamin D with the least of the sun's contributions - Scandinavians, Irish, etc - is by no means coincidental. Human diversification induced by the requirement for vitamin D is a case study in adaptation. This is all of relevance to diet now. In the modern world many of us live far from the equator, wear clothes routinely, and spend much/most of our time indoors. Such conditions, no matter one's pallor, provide very limited opportunity to manufacture vitamin D from sunlight. The result is a nearly universal requirement for ingestion of vitamin D from fortified food sources, supplements, or both. The greatest dietary guidance? If it gets cold, reheat it! Whether or not foods are considered truly addictive depends on the particular definition of addiction applied . The sky's the limit! A beautiful sunset on the beach, a dream house, a Disney vacation with your kids, a goal for your marathon personal-record time--anything that calls to you deserves a spot on your board.
Look for ideas big and small, from the exotic to the mundane. Think about things you'd like to do, for example, hosting a theme party, bottlefeeding baby animals, running a 5K, or taking a trip to Iceland. Get a glue stick, tape, and pushpins and assemble your poster board. When the board looks complete to you, hang it in a prominent spot in your bedroom or in your home office. And of course you can always add and remove things as your goals and dreams evolve. Another idea is to open a Notes article in your cell phone or get a dedicated pocket-size notearticle to keep track of your amazing ideas--something you can keep in your purse, so you have it at the ready. The purpose of the list is to gather all those someday ideas you have into one place and challenge yourself to actually do them. What will your next relationship look like? The use of signs and mimicry, such as miming having something to eat or drink, wash or clean teeth, will also provide useful cues and help with overall understanding. Age-related hearing loss, plus brain damage from the dementia, can interfere with both speech and hearing. Hence, it is useful to reduce noise within the environment because other sounds will make comprehension difficult because the loss of hearing cells will reduce people's abilities to filter out background noise. In term of topics of conversation, it is important to recognise people's strengths and to remember that in addition to everyday social chit chat, their long-term memory will often be well preserved. Hence, talking about favourite hobbies, past jobs and achievements are all good ways to engage people. In our teaching programme we often suggest using the fundamental needs list as a template, therefore the best conversations will: be on a familiar topic, highlight their competencies, be fun and humorous, illustrate control and confidence, demonstrate they are liked and be non-threatening or demanding. On occasions you may need to touch the PWD to assist with activities of daily living. In such circumstances it is often better to get initial contact via their consent. A common way to make a physical connection with someone you are not very familiar with is by offering a handshake. Once contact has been made the reassurance or assistance can be provided. That said, foods and flavors are addictive in the ways that matter most, namely their capacity to propagate cravings and tolerance (ie, the more you get, the more you want/need) . The food industry knows about, and exploits, the addictive properties of foods/flavors .
While the question is often asked - can food truly be addictive? The human nervous system did not develop to make addiction possible; The reward pathway that developed to encourage the eating that kept an individual alive and the sexual activity that enabled that individual to procreate and pass genes along is co-opted by addictive substances . Food (and sex), therefore, are why anything can be addictive in the first place . A diet of predominantly wholesome, whole, and minimally processed foods - and water for thirst - reliably defends against our vulnerability to food addiction by restoring conditions like those our nervous systems evolved to manage . Can food be addictive? Journalists ask periodically if food can be addictive and academics opine -- some to say no, most to say yes, and many to spell out the implications, including legal ramifications for food manufacturers. When we speak of addiction we have a tendency to blend the formal definition with the informal implications that matter most to us. Before you jump into the dating scene, you may want to do some soul searching so you know what you're looking for (and what you want to stay away from). Eleanor knew she was more interested in an activity partner than a romantic one. She wanted someone to go out with, but she also needed her space. For most of my adult life, I catered to my husband and daughter when I was home, she says. I was finally at the point where I felt like my home was my sanctuary, and I really didn't want to share it with anyone just yet. Denise wanted a wild and passionate romance. She had a drawer in her dresser that she left empty for her future partner. However, she didn't imagine him moving in with her. I was attached to the idea of him being around and accessible, but I wasn't going to move out of my new place, she says. I saw him staying over a couple of nights a week, but I wanted to have some days free each week for my son and my friends. Snow states that you should not touch someone, particularly when you need to assist them with intimate care, until you first get their attention through eye contact and a verbal exchange. On occasions PWD will ask difficult questions;
As discussed in the earlier section, the memory problems associated with time shifting mean that the person is no longer remembering the recent past but is drawing on memories from their LTM. Therefore the person may have forgotten: she has moved into care, her husband has died, she has retired, her children have grown up. Hence, the following questions are commonly heard from PWD: Sometimes these questions are ignored by carers, but if the PWD recognises her queries are either being avoided or remain unanswered, the questions may become repetitive. It is important for carers to acknowledge the query, so the person understands you have heard and understood. If the person is outwardly distressed or angry, it is also helpful to acknowledge that you have recognised their emotional state too. In many situations it is helpful to use the RAM technique that we discussed in the previous articles (Reduce the emotion, Assess the need, Meet the need). If you have used RAM and not been able to directly meet the person's need, as in the examples above, you should progress down the Needs Hierarchy. Formally, definitions range from the very concise -- a compulsive dependence -- to the long, detailed, and often - recondite. The DSM-V criteria for diagnosing addiction are: Taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than you're meant to. Wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to. Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance. Cravings and urges to use the substance. Not managing to do what you should at work, home, or school because of substance use. Continuing to use, even when it causes problems in relationships. Giving up important social, occupational, or recreational activities because of substance use. Using substances again and again, even when it puts you in danger. Jill was open to getting married again. She wanted a man to share her life with, but she couldn't imagine changing the dynamic in her household made up of all girls.