Saturday, 31 October 2020

You don't have to have a college degree to serve

Especially, when the discussion goes into a completely unexpected direction and you don't have any fitting texts in your pockets. Now let's bundle up all these ideas, add a few arrows, and we have one of the most popular cognitive behavioral models for social phobia - a classic from the year 1995. Diagram based on Clark & Wells (1995) [17] Another mental problem is also regarded as being heavily influenced by cognitions: obsessive and compulsive disorder (OCD). People who suffer from this do seemingly strange things, such as washing their hands until they bleed, or performing apparently nonsensical rituals, like quickly closing and re-opening a window 9 times before leaving it in the closed position. All this suddenly makes more sense if you look at their subjective reasons for doing it. Excessive cleaning, for example, is usually motivated by the wish to keep something perceived as being dangerous away from oneself. This substance, whatever it may be individually, has the unfortunate property of being invisible, so you can never really be sure if it's there or not. When you are slacking off, or giving in too easily, you need to hold yourself to a higher standard. The art of moment making is about experimenting between easing up and lowering the bar to create a win and raising the bar to set a new standard. Setting a Big Goal: By choosing 180 days, Nina gave herself a chance to form a new permanent rhythm. She and Gavin conditioned their minds and hearts to forever notice and create front row moments. Over the course of their lives, and those they impact, how much more fulfillment will they experience? LET'S EXPERIMENT What would life look like for you if you could recognize and create daily front row moments for yourself and others? How much more purpose and meaning could you bring to each and every moment? You are invited to be a daily moment maker Starting today, document and share one front row moment each day for the next 8 days. Milgram responded to these concerns first by noting his elaborate and thorough debriefing procedures. He described how, at the conclusion of each session, participants met the learner, saw that he was unharmed, and were fully informed of the study's purpose in examining the powerful effects of the situation on behavior.

Milgram also conducted a follow-up study which showed that more than 83% of participants were glad that they had been in the experiment and fewer than 1% of participants were sorry they had been in it. He also had participants examined by an experienced psychiatrist one year later and found no signs that any of the participants had been harmed by the experience. Milgram and others suggested that the ethical uproar might have been a reaction to the unpleasant implications of the findings rather than to the ethicality of the procedures, and some research supports this claim (Schlenker & Forsyth, 1977). Debate regarding this matter continues. In fact, recent archival analysis of Milgram's private notes and other sources of information indicated that Milgram may not have debriefed participants as consistently as he portrayed and that some participants claimed to have sustained serious harm from their involvement (Brannigan et al. For example, one participant attributed losing his job to an emotional outburst when discussing his participation in the study, and another reported having a heart attack when recalling his participation (Perry, 2013). The validity of these claims is unclear, but if they are valid, then surely the ethicality of the original experiments would be in question. THINK ABOUT That poses a problem: since your eyes, nose and other senses won't help, you have to rely on your intuition if it's around. Things that are most commonly feared are microorganisms like HIV. But very often it's also something more vague, such as bad energy, tiny body particles of a hated person, or even the own sperm. The feared scenario with the sperm goes into the other direction: microscopic amounts of own semen on the hand could possibly be spread by oneself in the city. Via a nearly unthinkable chain of contamination events this sperm leads to a woman getting pregnant, and the accidental father being held responsible for it. You probably instantly feel that there's some logical flaw in this idea. This is the case with many beliefs in this very diverse disorder. When you look at the more common fear of HIV, one of the typical irrational cognitions you will find is the overestimation about how often people come in contact with this virus, and how high the risk of infection is. What surprises many people even without OCD: statistically speaking, the risk of infection is only 0. Given these numbers, the risk of accidentally being infected with HIV when touching packages in the grocery store can safely be judged as being rather unlikely. We've heard countless stories from people in our community who've experienced deeply positive and profound benefits after just 8 days of capturing front row moments. Will you commit to being a moment maker for the next 8 days?

Here are a few comments from those who've taken on the 8-day experiment: This is the first social media challenge that has changed the way I see my day and show up in it, and in just 8 days. I'm noticing more meaningful moments, finding meaning where I wasn't before, and I now enter my days with anticipation and focus to create them more intentionally. I am changed, and feel great energy to continue on to see how much more I can get out of this if I make it a routine The level to which this community has embraced the experiment definitely exceeded my expectations and has dominated my conversations with friends and family. Whenever I'm with them they are constantly asking me if I captured my #frontrowmoment yet. I love that! It's so contagious. What position would you take on the ethicality of his research? Nonetheless, even before these archival analyses, the American Psychological Association (APA) judged that the potential harm of this threatening knowledge about the self could not be undone sufficiently, even by the best of debriefings. Thus, the full study cannot be replicated in the United States or other countries that adhere to the APA's judgment. However, Milgram's procedures were replicated in the Netherlands in the early 1990s and showed similarly high levels of obedience (Meeus & Raaijmakers, 1995). Moreover, in 2006, Jerry Burger (2009) obtained permission to replicate Milgram's Study 2, which originally yielded 62. In this way, even if the actions of the participants had resulted in actual shocks being delivered, they would not have harmed the learners greatly. Burger also carefully screened potential participants to ensure that they were not especially vulnerable to psychological harm and had a trained psychologist on site to provide counseling if needed. In Burger's voice-feedback variation, the learner began grunting in response to the 75-volt shock; Burger found that the percentage of participants willing to proceed past the 150-volt level was no different from what it had been over 40 years earlier. And Milgram found that 79% of those who continued past the 150-volt point were fully obedient through 450 volts. But that's exactly the problem: even with a one-in-a-trillion chance for a disaster, after a trillion lucky guys and girls inevitably comes the unlucky one - how sure can you be that it won't be you? From a cognitive behavioral perspective, there's a specific pattern in OCD that repeats itself over and over again.

It begins with suddenly having an idea, like Could I lose control and smash my baby against the wall? It might also be a short imaginary scene that shows up in the head: throwing the baby out of the window, strangling it to death, or slaughtering it with the kitchen scissors. This kind of mental event is called intrusion - a disturbing thought or image that pops up against the own will. And these intrusions usually are of maximal brutality, and - to make things even worse - always take the shape of what a person fears the most. A central problem in OCD is taking this idea as a sign for a real danger, and not just as a sign for being a little stupid today. Some mothers even conclude: These thoughts show that in my innermost self I'm a monster that can't be trusted. Cognitive behavioral therapists have a specific term for such thinking: thought-action-fusion. That's a typical cognitive distortion in OCD: believing that you will do a specific action in reality, which you watch yourself doing in your intrusions. This daily routine of finding and acknowledging front row moments created accountability for my well being. It isn't always easy to see the positive, and being determined to create it requires activity rather than passivity. But in doing so it forced me to pull myself out of a routine of often nonproductive or negative thinking. Acknowledging at least one moment made me realize that there were far more moments I was taking for granted. I shall continue because to establish a routine takes more than eight days MAKING HABITS STICK On average, it takes approximately 66 days to form a new habit. The true length depends greatly on the person, what habit's being formed, and additional circumstances. It may only take one week--it could also take one year. An experiment published in the European Journal of Social Psychology conducted by Phillippa Lally that followed 96 people over 12 weeks found on average it takes about 2 months to form a new habit. In addition, recently the findings of Milgram's Study 5, a variant where the learner does not have a heart problem, were replicated in Poland (Dolin'ski et al. Other replications have also been conducted, with some interesting twists made possible by technological advances.

In one study in France, instead of having a live confederate act as the learner, Dambrun and Vatine (2010) used an immersive video environment to simulate the learner via video streaming. This study found not only similar rates of obedience but also that the closeness of the victim similarly influenced rates of obedience. So as best we can surmise, the susceptibility to obedience to legitimate authority has not changed. Why is this willingness to obey a part of human nature? That's a bigger question, and we'll address it in the next section. In 2006 the APA approved partial replication of one of the classic Milgram studies (Burger, 2009). Why Do We Obey? Milgram offered some potential answers to the question of why we obey, each of which may have some validity. Common ideas in this category are: steering your own car into the opposite lane, jumping over the railing into a deadly abyss, or even unwillingly crying out aloud Heil Hitler! Another very similar cognitive distortion is thought-event-fusion: believing that a specific event will become reality because you see it happening in your intrusions. Unfortunately, this is hardly ever about getting rich and living a life of luxury, but rather about the contrary course of events. As a result of having thoughts like these, a mother with OCD may view herself as a potential danger to her child, and live in constant fear of getting out of control. This often causes a change in behavior, such as avoiding to be alone with the baby. Or it leads to the installation of security measures: eg, organizing a third person that must always be close by to stop the mad mother, the moment she turns evil. From the perspective of cognitive behavioral therapy, the big mistake in dealing with intrusions is to take them seriously, and to react with counter-measures. Because, when doing this, you basically agree to the realness of the threat. Performing obsessive-compulsive behavior is also called neutralizing. This is the assumed functionality - feared disasters are averted, and the person is rewarded with the restoration of a feeling of security. Another important note: The researcher team found that even if you mess up every now and then, it's not going to change the time needed to change the habit. It's not about perfection, it's about progress.

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